This design example, plate girder shear and flexural strengthening i,nvolves the addition of steel strenghening material to an existing steel plate girder. Steel plate girder bridge design using indian standard method and british standard method by nur afifah binti azemi dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the bachelor of engineering hons civil engineering january 2014 universiti teknologi petronas bandar sri iskandar 31750 tronoh perak darul ridzuan. B5 or by the flexural strength provisions of appendices f1. If it is elected to flame cut the connection plate, the cut line shall be 18 from the girder web. Box girder, rolled girder and plate girder bridges are primarily flexural. Expand the stiffener definitions tree item and double click on transverse. Pdf galvanizinginduced distortion in steel plate girders. This document presents costeffective details for steel bridges from the perspective of the steel fabricator.
Buckling of the compression flange due to inadequate stiffness of the web 3. Torsional bracing of beams brace stiffness and strength requirements 6 aisc specification appendix 6 bracing provisions. As in case of bridge design, span length and live load are always important factor. Walshgranite has utilized the folded steel plate girder bridge system to rapidly replace a deteriorated bridge as part of penndots p3 rapid bridge replacement. The program is unique because it optimizes plate girder designs on the basis of least cost, not least. Function proportion harmony order and rhythm contrast and texture light and shadow chart 1. By 1950s welded plate girders replaced riveted and bolted plate girders in developed world due to their better. Yield stress of steel, fy 250 nmm 2 material factor for steel. Girders, beams, stringers, floorbeams, bent caps, bulkheads, and straddle beams primary truss chords, diagonals, verticals, and portal and sway bracing members primary arch ribs and builtup or welded tie girders primary rigid frames primary gusset plates and splice plates in trusses, arch ribs, tie girders, and rigid frames primary.
Recently many steel plate girder bridges have had design and construction issues. Kien nguyen1, reza nasouri2, caroline bennett1, adolfo matamoros2, jian li1, arturo montoya2 1 department of civil, environmental and architectural engineering, university of kansas, lawrence, kansas. Transversally, the ribs are connected through the transverse beams figure 9 yielding a complex grillage system where the main girders, the steel plate, the ribs and the floor beams act together. The elastic critical shear strength of a plate girder is given by where, 0. Penndots rapid bridge replacement project utilizing folded. Plate girder bridges with only two girders, even for very wide decks figure 8, are very often preferred for the sake of simplicity 2. Tappan zee plate girder approach erection project participants. Recommendations to industry arising from investigation of. Plate girder parametric study with variations in loading and span article pdf available january 2017 with 1,054 reads how we measure reads. The various analysis nuances that can affect the results of a steel bridge analysis, and the implications of variations in the results of a steel bridge analysis.
These are discussed in detail in the chapters on plate girders. Saves the bridge description in this window and its tabs to memory and closes the window. The concrete slab had a width of 2184 mm and a depth of 181 mm. In structures that have only a small portion of the steel painted, such as beneath the joint systems of typical plate girder bridges, astm a709 grade 50w steel should be used. Railway bridge using indian standard method and british standard method.
Some of these issues relate to not following the txdot. For threeand fourspan continuous girder units make interior spans about. Plate girder for doubly symmetric ishaped sections plate girder. Galvanizinginduced distortion in steel plate girders. The web of a plate girder is relatively thin, and stiffeners are required mainly to prevent buckling due to compression from bending and shear. Structural steel 1 of 18 rev plate girder design project. Each bogie rides on four 24 diameter steel wheel riding on rails pulled along runway using cables and external winch system. This design example, plate girder shear and flexural strengthening, involves the addition of steel strenghening material to an existing steel plate girder. Recognized very early in its development as a signifi cant benefi t, steel pipe. O ten steel plate girder bridges were monitored o seven simple span o two twospan continuous o one threespan continuous o girder deflections were measured in the field during the concrete deck placement o developed 3dimensional finite element models to simulate deflections measured in the field. Stiffeners are also required at load points, supports, and within panels. Fspgbs have many advantages for both steel fabricators and bridge owners. Defined by the relationship of the roadway to the girder, these are deck girder bridges. A lack of understanding of plate girder susceptibility to distortion results in designers and owners hesitating to choose hotdip galvanizing for their bridges.
The design criteria is to strengthen the girder to obtain a. The web of plate girders resist the shear in the three modes, namely i pure shear, ii tension field action and iii that due to formation of collapse mechanism. Units 1 to 7 and units 8 to 9 are plate girder spans each unit is a 5 span continuous plate girder. Select steel girder types girder spacing approximate girder depth check vertical clearance yes no return to main flowchart plan for bridge aesthetics s2. The existing bridge was designed for hs20 live loading. For elastic design, which is applicable to plate girders, compactness can be verified by sect.
Structural steel design project calculation sheet checked by pu date 250400 problem. Mar 06, 2019 fabrication process for a typical folded plate girder. Design considerations for steel plate girder bridges. Figure 2 shows a cross section for a typical folded plate girder. Knight as a service to the bridge design profession, bethlehem steel has conducted hundreds of studies of steel plate girder bridges using its preliminary bridge girder optimization program. However, in bridge construction, a classical solution consists in adopting several i beams hot rolled sections for small spans up to 25m with 3,0 to 4,5m spacing. The girders that fractured at the ttc were designated in the design drawings as tpg3 girders, where tpg refers to tapered plate girder.
There was a total of four tpg3 girders in the ttc, and all four had nominally identical designs. Plate girder design using lrfd university of maryland. Buckling due to shear 7 vertical buckling the compression flange alateral buckling btorsional buckling c vertical buckling 8 aisc. Plate girder shear and flexural strengthening design. The steel plate is longitudinally stiffened by ribs which may be of open or closed section. Four span simply supported steel plate girder input. Design of plate girder comparing bs5950 with ec3 part 15 in plate girder design design of plate girder bs5950 most design rules found in sections 4. The span is 36 m and carries two concentrated loads as shown in fig. A plate girder bridge is a bridge supported by two or more plate girders.
Beams and girders an overview sciencedirect topics. All remaining weld and connection plate material shall be removed by grinding flush to the girder. Page 1 of 15 distortion of steel plate girders due to hotdip galvanizing authors. Plate girder is essentially a diy deep isection formed by welded steel plates at least 3 together to form a deep section large distance between the two flanges gives more optimal structural solution than rolled or compound sections weight and cost to resist bending span is defined by practical requirement, the maximum depth. Steel plate girder bridge design using indian standard method and british standard method by. For compression members, re fer to trusses in the aashto 17th edition and the aashto lrfd 4th edition. E1 is fully restrained against lateral buckling throughout its span.
The web of the steel plate girders was strengthened by stiffeners as shown in figure 7. The plates were joined together using angles and rivets to obtain plate girders of desired size. This paper describes a finite element study on the distortion of welded steel plate girders. Wisdot bridge manual chapter 24 steel girder structures july 2019 245 24.
Use a36 steel and assume the girder has continuous bracing for its compression flange. The authority requires minimum plate thicknesses as follows. Plate girder worked example 1 made by sssr date 150400 structural steel design project calculation sheet checked by pu date 250400 for drawing the bending moment and shear force diagrams, factored loads are considered fig. Key words steel bridge, steel i girder, aashto lrfd, moment redistribution, cross frame design 18. The girder is to be strengthened due to section loss from corrosion.
Introduction ence 710 university of maryland, college park. Thedifficultyoferectingaplate girder bridgeob viouslyincreaseswith thespan, and inthis discussion the methodsused in variousbridges willbe described inthe order. They are used to support loads over long spans 60 ft. The flange section is varied along the length of the bridge. Beam the term beam is a general term and means a horizontal member supported at its ends and subjected to loading perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. Folded plate girders suitable for different span lengths differ only by their crosssectional dimensions. Efcos onsite training was very beneficial and made for costproductive erection of the plate girder system on this bridge pier project. Steel beam with timber deck superstructure standards ss8 major changes andor additions to past practices are as follows.
The centurylong tradition of steel girder bridge construction has resulted in. The bridge cross section consists of 10 equally spaced steel plate girders, which support the 942 wide castinplace concrete deck. Bridge design is an important as well as complex approach of structural engineer. Remove the damaged diaphragm connection plate from the fascia girder by airarc gouging or flame cutting. This document primarily discusses common steel girder bridge types. Top flanges of composite plate girders are typically smaller than their bottom flanges. Steel plate girders are constructed by welding steel plates together to form isections as shown in figure 3. The steel girders are usually fabricated isection plate girders. Repeat this process to define the other two stiffeners.
Design considerations for steel plate girder bridges the texas. Welded plate girders, which are the most common form of plate girders, are built up structural steel members that consists of flange plates welded to a web plate. These factors affect the conceptualization stage of design. Threeand fourspan continuous girder units are preferable. Ring girders, 183 ring girder construction for lowpressure pipe, 183. At the next decision point of the flowchart, the section is classified as a beam or a plate girder based on the flexural. All forms continued in use into the twentieth century.
The steel girder bridge is a structure in which a floor system and roadway, concrete or timber, is supported by girders, usually rolled section beams which are plain or encased in concrete. Diaphragms crossframes through girders the beam or girder is fully braced at a location if twist is prevented. Wisdot bridge manual chapter 24 steel girder structures. Figure 4 is a sketch of the tpg3 girder at midspan showing the hanger connection plate. It is usually the economical choice over grade 36 steel. This figure also shows the location of the cjp groove weld in the bottom flange and the cjp groove welds connecting the 1. The measured flange and web portions of the steel plate girder of g2 had yield and ultimate tensile stresses of 556, 700 mpa and 583, 656 mpa, respectively. The following section presents information from the. Fabrication of folded plate girder using a press break machine.
Pdf design of plate girders miftakhu zaim academia. In a plate girder bridge, the plate girders are typically ibeams made up from separate structural steel plates rather than rolled as a single crosssection, which are welded or, in older bridges, bolted or riveted together to form the vertical web and horizontal. Pdf plate girder parametric study with variations in. Effects of girder geometry article pdf available in journal of bridge engineering 2412. Steel plate girder bridge design using indian standard. Steel plate girder bridge design using indian standard method.
Additionally, the weld design for the webtoflange joint of the plate girders is demonstrated along with all applicable components of the stiffener design and cross frame member design. Section 7 structural steel 73 edition and the aashto lrfd 4th edition. In 1900, girder bridges were used for spans less than 100 feet long, but by 1930, spans were built up to 150. Introduction welded plate girders, which are the most common form of plate girders, are builtup structural steel members that consists of flange plates welded to a web plate with fillet welds. Due to various restrictions on placing files in this manual onto the internet, portions of the drawings shown do not necessarily reflect. At the end of this study, the author will compare the provision of respective design standard and the difference in weight of the structure designed when the span is. At the next decision point of the flowchart, the section is classified as a beam or a plate girder. Pdf comparative study of prestressed concrete girder and. Ibc 2015 minimum design loads for buildings and other structures asce 710 guide for the design and construction of mill buildings aise tech report no. Lrfd design example for steel girder superstructure bridge.1398 77 634 250 1389 1559 1602 50 631 563 785 943 598 1325 307 239 112 1424 478 374 680 1623 1431 1347 460 1436 973 962 1415 92 518 1405 361 1231 679